THE END OF WINTEL: HOWTHREE DECADES OF DOMINANCE ENDED

Group 2: Dhara Gada, Brianna Monroe, Collin Zeffer, David Budzinski, Jared Logan, Arman Ameri, Suguna Srilasya Banigandlapati  

 

BACKGROUND: Hackers and Open Source

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_culture

 

  • Hacker culture involves a group of people who enjoy the challenge of overcoming software systems and their limitations in a creative way, in order to achieve clever and interesting outcomes. 
  • This term does not represent hackers negatively. It actually covers how the hacking activities are performed, and if it is perceived as exciting and important. These activities were said to have “hack value”, which is how the word “hack” began.
  • The history of the hacker culture began in the 1960s within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)’s Tech Model Railroad Club and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The initial challenge was to enter restricted programs or areas in a new, clever way that would not create major damage or problems. 
  • The main goal of those in hacker culture is to enjoy “exploring the details of programmable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary,” (Raymond, Eric, ed. (2003-12-29). “hacker”. Jargon File (version 4.4.7 ed.). Retrieved 2008-03-02.)

 

And then END OF WINTEL?…..THE MONOPOLY BEGINS TO BREAK UP… 2010 to 2017

https://www.economist.com/business/2010/07/29/the-end-of-wintel (Links to an external site.)

 

  • Wintel stands for the relationship between Microsoft and Intel, in which most personal computers run on the Windows OS and the intel processor chip. 
  • The Wintel relationship is being threatened by other big tech companies such as Apple and Google expanding into different technological fields. This also creates new alliances in which Wintel must face.
  • Along with competing companies, the Wintel relationship is also being endangered by the FTC due to antitrust laws. 
  • The Wintel relationship must come to an end for each company to expand into other technological fields before it is too late.

 

The Fall of Wintel and the Rise of Armdroid

https://hbr.org/2011/01/the-fall-of-wintel-and-the-ris 

  • Tablets are starting to lead to the extinction of PC’s
  • Both Microsoft and Intel have attempted making their own tablets however they failed. 
  • Intel’s development of Atom has also been a failure.
  • With Windows 7 out it wouldn’t be economical for Microsoft to develop another OS which could lead to cannibalization of its products.
  • Both ARM and Android — Armdroid — are providing everything that tablet manufacturers need and doing it more effectively and at a lower cost than Microsoft and Intel can.

 

In summary, the Wintel era is starting to come to an end with a new reign beginning with Armdroid. And with antitrust laws there is going to be a lot more different companies offering the same tech services much like the telephone companies. Like when Bell Atlantic broke up into Verizon, T-Mobile, AT&T, etc. This seems like a necessary step forward for tech companies as technology is a field which grows at an exponential rate in which tech companies must not only keep up to survive in but also keep innovating. 

 

         https://www.zdnet.com/article/wintel-beginning-of-the-end-or-end-of-the-beginning/

 

  • The problem for both Microsoft and Intel was the market changed at a pace that both the companies were struggling to match
  • Microsoft could neither show the revenues nor the margins when compared to competitors such as Apple (taking into account Apple’s cut from third party AppStore sales).

 

  • Later on Microsoft and Intel’s influence is significantly diminished because technology advancements from other market players. Pressure was building on the Wintel twins. The answers so far has hardly been inspiring, seemingly limited to cheaper than Apple’ but with little or no real innovation

https://slate.com/business/2012/12/end-of-wintel-mary-meeker-and-horace-dediu-say-the-wintel-market-share-has-collapsed.html

 

  • The conventional way of thinking about the electronics market is to say that Microsoft Windows and Intel x86 processors dominate the desktop and laptop market but haven’t done well in the growing mobile devices market.

 

  • The game here is to say that the Galaxy Tab and the i-phone should all be looked at as computing devices, and we should see that the explosion of Android and IOS devices (typically powered by ARM chips) is leading to a catastrophic erosion of the Wintel market share.

 

For users who use all these devices, the need is – some phone-tablet substitutability and also some tablet-laptop substitutability but very little phone-laptop substitutability. That makes it hard to know how to characterize the scope of the market.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/aarontilley/2017/03/10/microsoft-intel-divorce/#7d75e9a1285f

 

  • Microsoft and Intel had been partnering since decades and they ruled the world of PC era by their so-called duopoly.
  • This partnership weakened in the mobile era.
  • Microsoft is engaging new partners like Qualcomm and Cavium for server chips for Project Olympus by evaluating ARM- based chips.
  • Microsoft is also looking for partners in intel’s ownx86 market. It partnershiped with AMD (key rival of intel) for its new server chip, Naples  
  • All these new ventures are Microsoft’s integral component of plan to bring down the cost of their data centers.
  • Intel also was trying to be free from Microsoft and overall PC market and Microsoft started the initiative to search for alternative architecture.

 

https://www.wired.com/2017/03/wintel-going-not-dead-yet/

  • Microsoft announced that it will use ARM chips in the data centers that run Azure.
  • In Mobile era, citizens of the world are spending so much on iphone and android, windows hardly exists.
  • Most mobile devices use ARM chips and Intel is not dominant in this but for other online services intel chips run 99% of worlds computer server. 
  • Google bought more server chips from intel, however it does not sell server but builds server for itself.
  • Google and Microsoft just announced for using other chips to leverage against intel by adding competition to the market. The other chipmakers need to build solid foundational software for chips to operate in practical world and this will take them years to come at part with intel and compete.
  • This is not about technology but about economics’ and trying to bring down the prices of chip.
  • No real market competition exists to keep prices down.

 

Microsoft and Google are trying to bring new players in chip market by exploring different architectures and trying to bring the cost down. Intel in dominant player in the chip market and competing intel will take years of effort and lot of infrastructure for chipmakers. Definitely, there needs to be new players in market to overrule intel’s monopoly.

 

“Intel’s Exit Leaves Qualcomm in Full Control of the 5G Smartphone Modem Roadmap”

https://www.pcworld.com/article/403589/intel-5g-smartphone-modem-exit-qualcomm.html

 

  • In the battle for high level 5G technology for smartphones, Intel abandons research and leaves it to Qualcomm, which would be the only supplier of 5G technology.
  • Apple and Qualcomm have a contract where Apple uses Qualcomm chips in their smartphones. Intel will continue to invest resources into 5G technology for other devices but struggled to create a modem that would meet users demands in phones.
  • This opens the door for Qualcomm technology to be used in U.S. smartphones exclusively. Intel could still potentially sell 5G intellectual property to Qualcomm but that is yet to be determined. 

 

Article: How Google is beating Microsoft in the cross-platform cloud

Link: https://www.windowscentral.com/how-googles-anthos-cross-platform-cloud-strategy-threat-microsoft-azure

 

  • Amazon and Microsoft have been number one and two in the cloud computing industry.  Google is entering the competition with their new technology “Anthos” focusing on cross-platform cloud capabilities, like how Microsoft uses their cloud computing with their enterprise services.
  • Anthos is an open source cloud solution that would allow their customers to work across other cloud platforms, targeting customers who are frustrated with working across multiple cloud platforms.
  • Anthos can run on Google’s Cloud Platform and in customers’ data centers by using Google Kubernetes Engine. Additionally, no new hardware is required to run the solution since it is software-based. 
  • Kubernetes is an open source system for managing containerized applications across multiple hosts. (https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes)
  • Although Microsoft is also utilizing its own Azure Kubernetes service, Google is still seeking to market Anthos as the leading open source enterprise cloud solution.

 

Google is seeking to enter the cloud computing competition with their new technology named “Anthos.” The approach is like Microsoft, where its competitive advantage comes from its cross-platform cloud opportunities. Google is targeting specifically people who are frustrated with having to work across multiple cloud platforms, given that Anthos allows users to work across these different cloud platforms.

 

Top Public Cloud Providers Grow Revenue Amidst COVID-19 Crisis

https://www.itprotoday.com/iaaspaas/top-public-cloud-providers-grow-revenue-amidst-covid-19-crisis

 

  • The top three public cloud service providers – Amazon, Microsoft, and Google – have all seen an increase in their revenues due to the greater use of cloud computing. This is attributable to more people working from home from the COVID-19 Pandemic.
  • Microsoft Azure, Microsoft’s cloud computing, has expanded to Mexico and Spain. This expansion set Microsoft to the top as having the most data center regions.
  • Google is also expanding to four more regions. Additionally, Google plans to release its new service, called Cloud Memorystore, which is a in-memory data store service.
  • Amazon is expanding as well, keeping up with its other cloud service competitors. AWS will soon make its Amazon Keyspaces cloud database service available to the general public.

 

Overall Summary of the Articles

 

In conclusion, hacker culture is something that allows individuals to showcase their technology skills by overcoming challenges and learning something new. It allows people to test themselves by breaking through the limitations of general programs or software’s. Many of the values of the free open-source software originally began with the hacker culture at MIT, which creates a set of principles and attitudes followed by those in this subculture. These can include feeling that computer access can teach you anything, all information should be free, hackers should be judged by their skills, and that computers can create art, beauty, and change lives forever. 

 

This connects directly to open source, which is not simple access to the source codes. Open-source software must not restrict the software from being distributed, must include source code, and not discriminate, as a few examples. Open source has been acknowledged for its continual rise dating back to 2013, when partners in the technology world stated that open source is “eating the software world.” Open source is solving issues of lower costs and big data, which has proven to be quite beneficial.

 

We saw an issue with Microsoft and Intel, which was that they could not find ways to invest in low-end offerings, specifically tablets, in a profitable manner. The age of tablets was strong in 2011, which is when people began to feel PCs might be overthrown. Developing operating systems for tablets would cost Microsoft a lot, especially when other companies began to do it at a lower cost. Microsoft tried to combat this by resurging with a strong business in cloud development, and even showing signs of leaving Intel behind if they could. Intel’s chips have been the only practical option for data centers, until this in 2017. Microsoft began to branch out to other chips that could power their services more efficiently. Microsoft and Intel had been trying to split for a long time, and now that Microsoft attempted to gain independence from the PC, it seemed to be finally possible.

 

Questions:

  1. Hacker subculture is one of the spaces from which the open source movement evolved. What is common between the two and do you believe that the open source software movement has significant impact in the real world?
  2. How did the WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry fall apart?
  3. Having lost their preeminent positions and parting ways Microsoft and Intel Have adopted very different recovery strategies. What are these strategies and how successful/unsuccessful has each been?

44 thoughts on “THE END OF WINTEL: HOWTHREE DECADES OF DOMINANCE ENDED

  1. In this case, hackers are the reason open source software exists and is successful as a movement. It allows those who enjoy improving upon and learning about technology to work collaboratively to create significant end-user experiences. This has impacted businesses, as Linux as an open source software family has given rise to RHEL and UNIX, all of which run servers. This movement also prevents groupthink, as people with different experiences and needs are able to tweak the codes to their own preferences. The beauty of open source technology is that it leads to innovations, even when the end-goal is not to sell for profit. This would be contrary to what many pure capitalists believe, that competition produces the best innovation. Additionally, the hacker subculture has led to other business necessities such as penetration testing. In practice companies who practice pen-testing will agree to work with a financial services company to attempt to bypass their information security protocols and access information. They will report strengths and weakness of company firewalls and other defenses.

    Additionally, to comment on the Wintel situation, Intel’s end game has changed drastically since the early 2000’s and forward. They have invested $20billion in a factory to produce semi-conductors. At a time where the global supply chain has become severely disrupted in the wake of the pandemic, this is a move to fill the void left by rapid increasing demand for Monitors, PCs, gaming consoles, televisions, and the like. However, they are carefully weighing the projected supply and demand of semiconductors as some analysts point out that this shortage can turn into a “glut” in the next 3-5 years. Samsung has been ahead of Intel in filling the void thus far, in Intel’s attempt to compete, they could wind up with an oversupply, in an industry where the large demand has been quelled back to normal proportions. A few years ago, a solid argument on Intel having a positive outlook was their advanced chip giga-factories. Recently, they have begun outsourcing advanced chip manufacturing to the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), which does not bode well for their future.

    Microsoft, on the other hand, has poured almost half a trillion dollars into acquiring game developers to boost their game subscription service, which since 2012 has increased substantially. This comes in the wake of failing to acquire several large social media applications: Tik Tok, Pinterest, and Discord. For many years, while Microsoft’s main goals were to develop Windows, Xbox as a division sat under Windows. This means they often lost out to larger investment asks to create stand alone games. This is why they have lagged behind in terms of console exclusive games. They have since invested considerable resources into firms with popular games who could potentially provide an advantage with console exclusive rights.

    Yes, these companies have been sidelined in the smartphone and tablet industry, but they have made strides to boost their business again to meet the needs of a changing market.

    Like

    1. Hey Jesse, I thought you did a great job explaining the information here and connecting it. The potential of open source software is definitely an amazing thing, and leaves room for a lot of opportunity. I think that it certainly allows for “hackers”, although in this case they aren’t malicious, to explore their options and work alongside open source software to achieve things even greater.

      Like

    2. Hi Jesse,
      Great post. I agree that intel saw a drastic fall from grace mostly due to overconfidence and a failure to adapt and be agile enough to compete. As you mentioned their recent investment in the new chip factory in the united states, while a great thing for the USA it is a risky proposition for Intel. I feel that the wind of change in politics are constantly changing and this anti china sentiment might recede or further amplify. Its a risk that could rip major benefits if the latter comes to be or suffer significant losses if the relations normalize.

      Like

  2. 1. Upon reading the Hacker Culture article on Wikipedia, it is apparent there are strong similarities between open source software and hacker culture. In fact, the open source software movement can be linked to hacker culture as both concepts share similar values. The Hacker Ethics, chronicled by Steven Levy, are based on the concepts of sharing, openness, and collaboration within computer software. These traits are identical to those found in open source software. Open source systems such as Drupal and WordPress are free to download and allow for user customization and collaborative networking. The correlation between hacker ethics and open source software is apparent and this movement has had an impact in the real world in turn.

    I believe that the open source software movement has an impact on the real world. Everyone uses the internet as part of their everyday lives. We depend on it for communication, socialization, and collaboration (amongst other things). How we interact on the internet then has an effect on how we interact in the real world. We sometimes see it for the worse in how people treat each other. The worst of humanity will fear no repercussions for insulting another person on a Facebook message board, and may feel empowered to do so in real life. This is an unfortunate byproduct of the openness granted by open source software. However, there is also a positive correlation between the two. Blogs built on open source software can be used to help people connect with one another on shared interests or provide help and guidance to one another. This behavior can help influence people to be more helpful to one another in the real world.

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    1. Hi Tom, great response. I liked reading your second paragraph about the positives and negatives of open source programming. When it is used with the internet as a form of communication, the capabilities are endless. This can have negative effects however, like you mentioned, but it’s something unavoidable and the positive correlation must continue to be acknowledged. The behaviors can definitely translate from online to the real world, and hopefully this potential continues to grow.

      Like

    2. Hey Tom,
      You bring up some nice points. While open source software can be greatly beneficial to companies i feel that it also offers major vulnerability as software expert can discover vulnerabilities that can be exploited. I read an article that lists 7 vulnerabilities of open source software:

      1. Vulnerabilities are Public Knowledge
      2. Lack of Security
      3. Intellectual Property Issues
      4. Lack of Warranty
      5. Relaxed Integrations Oversight
      6. Operational Insufficiencies
      7. Poor Developer Practices

      https://www.infocyte.com/blog/2019/06/18/7-risks-posed-by-open-source-software-and-how-to-defend-yourself/

      Like

    3. Hi Tom, I really enjoyed your response. I found really interesting how the word hacker gets misconstrued in our day when most people think of hackers nowadays they think of villains not knowing the impact hackers have had in the breakthrough of software development and innovation. I feel that people should know the distinction between a hacker and cracker as the later one is the one that benefits from doing illegal stuff in the internet and I feel not many people know the distinction. Moreover, the concepts of sharing, openness and collaboration that you mention surely overlap with open source which many people find as a good thing. Thus, I feel that people should take a ore insightful view in the common concepts this two things have.

      Like

  3. 1. After reading the different articles presented, there is a similarity between hacker culture and open source software. Both of these want people to have access to everything on the internet. Even when we were all younger, a lot of people around us were downloading free mp3 versions of songs onto their iPod’s instead of paying for it, whether that was from an illegal website or through a free website, people would do whatever they could to save money. Both of these, hacker ethics and open source software, have impacted the real world.2. In terms of the WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry falling apart, I really enjoyed reading Jesse’s take on it. For me being born in 1998, I don’t remember a life really without technology, but for my mom and grandparents it really has changed their lives. The relationship between Microsoft and Intel truly paved the roads for other technology companies to drive on. Kids being born in the last few years only hear of Apple and Google as being two of the biggest players in the technology fields, whereas it is so much more than that. I feel that it fell apart because it could not keep up with the technological advances like Apple and Google. Wintel’s products are becoming obsolete compared to the products that are being offered to us now. 

    Like

    1. Hi Jessica, I enjoyed reading your response here. There is a definitely a connection between hacker culture and open source software, which is something I noticed when originally gathering information for this assignment. The hacker culture we learned about here isn’t performed with negative intent, and it just a way to discover more and teach others. Hacking can differ greatly, the music downloading example you mentioned is extremely relatable. There is always a desire for free things, which makes open source software a huge benefit, and hacker culture serves as a result of this desire.

      Like

    2. Hi Jessica,
      I think you bring up a great point about the Wintel monopoly breaking up as a result of hackers and open source software. A company’s success comes down to the talent and drive of it its employees. Keeping this in mind, it would be difficult for Wintel to compete in terms of talent with what they have compared to all the hackers or people working on open-source software. If you look at the open source software, such as Apache, it is the combination of a group of very talented people working together to create something, acting similarly to a company. However, this group of people have the power to execute things more freely without the bureaucracy of a large company looming over them, slowing them down.

      Like

    3. Hi Jessica, I really enjoyed your post as it brought really insightful perspectives to light. One statement that caught my attention is the mp3 songs and how myriads of people did that and I agree with you in the sense that people will do whatever to save money these days. As you also mentioned, I also agree that both hackers and open source software have impacted the world in enormous ways bringing innovation and collaboration to create better software many people have been positively affected by these two things. Thus, I believe they are important things in our world today.

      Like

  4. 1) Hackers and open source have similarities and they both want to find answers and use the knowledge or resources they have to find those answers. It is truly amazing and terrifying the knowledge hackers have and what information they can find. I believe hackers and open source share one goal and that is ruling the internet.
    2) I believe the monopoly of the digital world fell apart is when people or companies developed something that was life changing for the old generation and solved a daily need. The first invention inspired another invention and my generation started to learn it and develop new inventions. That is when the monopoly collapsed. It is truly amazing to see life with technology now compared to life back in the 90s. I am truly excited but a little worried the technology we invent during my lifetime.
    3) For Microsoft and Intel, they were very big in the technology world back in the early 2000s. However, they slowly started to decline in value and their products becoming slightly ineffective. Companies like Apple are taking over the industry and everyone agrees that they are more advanced. However, Microsoft and Intel developed some strategies like partnering or buying out companies to help improve their brand and products. This might help temporarily but people will lean more towards Apple and can’t break that public trust. Microsoft and Intel are still monumental companies but overtime the world and technology will push them aside.

    Like

    1. Hi Anthony,

      Great post! I agree that Wintel felt that another new technology was coming out. However, the failure of the big companies also reminds everyone of the importance of innovations. The higher the risk is, the higher the returns. It’s sad to see that FujiFilm went out of business when the digital camera became popular. But, on the other hand, it’s also excited for the fantastic changing world with all the new technologies!

      Thank you,
      Cici Ouyang

      Like

    2. Hi Anthony,

      Great response. Yes, hackers’ culture and open source they are the one who is benefited in great deal by ruling the new technologies in the first place than the consumers in the world. I wonder sometimes whether to feel proud of latest iPhone or android smartphones or to its negative impact on the society. Microsoft and Intel’s were IoT (Internet of things) partners leading hardware, software, edge, and cloud capabilities allow us to provide everything you need to advance your solutions quickly without compromising performance or security. But at the end wintel forced Microsoft to face most prominent technology companies in the industry in the technology market, well-known brands such as Apple Google, SAP, IBM as the company faces stiff competition in several key areas of the technology sector.

      Like

    3. Hi Anthony,

      I also believe that Microsoft and Intel were just not able to adapt to the changing technological landscape. From the articles above, it’s clear that competitors, such as Apple and Google, were aggressive in creating new products (phones, tablets) in order to reach untapped consumer markets. The Wintel monopoly almost appeared to be behind on the trends, and when they went to jump into the marketplace they were both ill-prepared and not fully committed. Specifically, this is seen by Microsoft’s unwillingness to pursue tablets at the cost of their own PCs, and Intel unable to match the 5G smartphone technology.

      Like

    4. Hi Anthony,
      I agree with you Apple has seen much more success than Windows and Intel in the past decade or so. I think their success is derived less on the capabilities of the technology, and more on how they use it. For one, Apple has one of the strongest marketing programs among all companies, not just technology companies. Additionally, the way they use their technology to make an easy-to-use graphical interface has been one of their key success stories. It is interesting because phones like the Androids have much more capabilities and allow more customization, yet Apple still dominates the market. I think this is partially due to their ability to market, but also that customers are not always looking for a lot of customization. Sometimes they want a package that is easy to use. Great points in your post!

      Thanks,
      Dave

      Like

    5. Hi Anthony

      Great post! I agree with you that the monopoly of the digital world fell apart when people or companies developed something that was life changing for the old generation and solved a daily need. These companies needed to keep up and supply new innovation to the consumers. New companies with different ideas came along and produced products that changed the tech industry. The consumers wanted what was new and different. This ultimately led to the monopoly of the digital world falling apart

      Like

  5. 1. Open Source could mean an open door for hackers. “Open source components, which comprise 60-80% of the codebase in modern applications, are a favorite target for hackers because they are available for developers to add into their code, adding powerful features that they would otherwise have to write on their own.” (White Source Software)The Open Source software movement definitely has a significant impact in the real world. The Open Source software allows others to develop essential technologies. The Open Source software also sustains innovations in mature software markets.
    2. Wintel fell apart because the two companies were unwilling to take the heavy investment into the phone market. It wouldn’t be economical for Microsoft to develop another OS which could lead to the cannibalization of windows 7. Microsoft tried to split up and found other chip manufacturers to lower costs. Intel exited the 5G smartphone market and invested resources into 5G technology for different devices.
    3. As mentioned, Microsoft bought other players into the chip market to lower the cost. On the other hand, Microsoft uses cloud computing with its enterprise services. Microsoft shows growing revenue due to the pandemic. However, Google’s cloud service is seeking to enter the cloud computing competition with their new technology that allows users to work across different cloud platforms. Intel exited the 5G smartphone market and invested resources into 5G technology for other devices. According to the article, Intel still runs 99% of the chip business.

    Like

    1. Hi Cici,

      I enjoyed reading your post. I agree with your explanation of why wintel fell apart. Their lack of vision and the adverse risk culture enabled the decisions to not innovate but instead protect and develop their existing products. We see the same mistake happen over and over from companies like sears, Toys R us etc. who failed to innovate and adapt fast enough to the internet age. While Microsoft has again gained their dominance mostly due to their Cloud infrastructure Azure , intel is still struggling and hopes that the 20 billion investment in the giga factory will enable them to be competitive once again. As it was mentioned in a different p[ost this decision can backfire by creating oversupply of chips after production recovers from the Covid 19 slowdown.

      Like

    2. Hi Cici,

      I enjoyed reading your discussion this week. I found your insight on 5G very interesting since it is such a relevant topic today. I did not realize that intel has invest so much into 5G. Intel and 5G market does make sense and one that could really thrive if done properly. I also read that Intel still runs 99% of the chip business which is very interesting and could be looked at as still a monopoly in my opinion .

      Like

  6. 1.) The open source movement was a direct result of “hackers” and their principles. Hackers believe in collaboration, sharing of ideas, and creativity. They use their computer skills to challenge/expose the vulnerabilities within a software system, with intentions of improving the software long-term. It is done in a playful way and without maliciousness. In many ways, this is what Open Source beliefs are founded upon. The sharing of software, which can be altered, improved upon, and then copyrighted. It is completely free and encourages creativity.

    I believe this movement has significant impact in the real world, as collaboration and modification of software will continue to produce high-quality products. There are some downsides, however. Having access to this open source code allows anyone with bad intentions to copy, manipulate, and create “bugs”. Also, as Tom mentioned earlier, the open source of Facebook and other social media platforms have profound positive and negative impacts in our culture. Overall, I believe open source is a positive movement that will continue to be improved upon.

    Like

    1. Hi Joseph,

      I agree with your stance regarding the dangers and benefits of open source software. The idea of the movement is appealing: to make programs available to everyone, and welcome collaboration and changes in the hopes of improving existing tech. Like with anything, though, there will be drawbacks. I think it is difficult to rely on an “honor system” and hope everyone has good intentions. There will be individuals who take advantage of the freedom and look to lessen the materials or negatively impact others.

      I think it should also be considered that opinions vary, and what someone may consider an improvement on a software may seem like a negative to another user. So while I ultimately see the benefits in open source movement, there are some obstacles with the project.

      Like

  7. 1. Upon reading the information pertaining to hacker subculture, and the class discussion concerning open source software, I believe strong similarities can be made between the two. Specifically, in trying to stretch software or technology beyond their manufactured standards to achieve something greater. I think the term “hacker” has a negative connotation associated with it today, where people/companies almost fear their abilities as they feel they can be a threat to their cyber security and information. However, original hacker subculture did not appear to be malicious, but almost to test their own skills and keep past software restrictions. Open source software movement looks to do something similar, by allowing anyone to access certain softwares and codes without any financial or technical restrictions. With this open source, anyone would have equal access and be allowed to later and improve the technology.

    2. The Wintel monopoly ultimately collapsed due to Microsoft and Intel not adapting to their competitors and the growing technological landscape. As noted above, FTC antitrust laws did begin to emerge against both Microsoft and Intel, but competitors such as Apple and Google are willing to take risks and enter new markets, such as tablets and phones. The issue for Wintel is that these are two companies partnered together, but their future ideals may not align. As the group states, Microsoft would not consider tablets as to not hurt their own PC products, and Intel had tried expanding in the past, but their efforts were futile and the costs were too large. As consumer preferences and competitors expanded, it appears that Wintel was just willing to keep up.

    3. Microsoft has still seen success since the Wintel breakup, specifically with their efforts regarding computer chips alongside Google. Having a strong technological base to work off of, Microsoft in a way is going against Intel in seeking alternatives to the chip market. In doing so, Microsoft hopes to lower the cost of chips in a market that faces very little competition. Microsoft is also looking into cloud computing, again against Google, but it appears Google’s backlog of technology and resources leave them better suited for the future in this area.

    Intel, in contrary to Microsoft, appears to be struggling slightly since the Wintel break. As mentioned, Intel’s organization has a strong base in CPU chips, but now Microsoft and Google have entered the market and are seeking to make the technology both more available and affordable. In the age of smartphones, Intel also looked to integrate their technology within the 5G phones, but have since stepped aside from the project and allowed Qualcomm to enter the space. While Intel has stepped aside, there is a chance the company sells some of the 5G technology to Qualcomm to at least make some profit off the venture.

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  8. Intel is expanding its horizon by bringing other innovative products as below:
    • Intel’s Mobileye
    • 12th Gen Intel Core H-series processors (Mobile processors),
    • discrete graphics market (Intel Arc graphics)

    Microsoft is entering in the below areas:
    1. Data centers
    2. Cloud infrastructure
    3. Microsoft advertising

    Some interesting Video’s on Strategies by CEO’s:
    Microsoft’s Strategies: https://youtu.be/GxflN3Nu9m8
    Intel’s Strategies: https://youtu.be/XCHT-PgoBNk
    Intel CEO: We will be a leader in chips again https://youtu.be/RuXT5IG8pRQ

    Microsoft has far more wins than they have failures. That doesn’t necessarily mean the trend will continue indefinitely, but CEO Satya Nadella clearly gets it, and he has managed to abandon the traditional “Windows or nothing” philosophy and find a way to compete in new markets, even as PC sales have declined, and Windows has been replaced by Android as the overwhelmingly dominant computer operating system (smartphones are considered “computers”).

    Intel’s PC and laptop dominance is decreasing. Lesser and lesser people are buying laptops and just preferring smartphones over laptops. Even lesser people are buying PC’s and most of these are gaming PC’s where Nvidia and AMD is cutting into the market. However, the major adoption across the world is of Smartphones where Samsung is the clear leader in chip making.

    Sources:
    Intel takes on driverless and chip supply challenges at CES 2022 (techhq.com)
    CES: Intel Engineers Fastest Mobile Processor Ever with 12th Gen…
    Why is Microsoft so successful? | Computerworld
    Microsoft’s virtual datacenter grounds ‘the cloud’ in reality | Innovation Stories
    Top 6 Intel Competitors – Competitor Analysis of Intel (marketing91.com)

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  9. 1. Upon reading the information pertaining to hacker subculture, and the class discussion concerning open source software, I believe strong similarities can be made between the two. Specifically, in trying to stretch software or technology beyond their manufactured standards to achieve something greater. I think the term “hacker” has a negative connotation associated with it today, where people/companies almost fear their abilities as they feel they can be a threat to their cyber security and information. However, original hacker subculture did not appear to be malicious, but almost to test their own skills and keep past software restrictions. Open source software movement looks to do something similar, by allowing anyone to access certain softwares and codes without any financial or technical restrictions. With this open source, anyone would have equal access and be allowed to later and improve the technology.

    2. The Wintel monopoly ultimately collapsed due to Microsoft and Intel not adapting to their competitors and the growing technological landscape. As noted above, FTC antitrust laws did begin to emerge against both Microsoft and Intel, but competitors such as Apple and Google are willing to take risks and enter new markets, such as tablets and phones. The issue for Wintel is that these are two companies partnered together, but their future ideals may not align. As the group states, Microsoft would not consider tablets as to not hurt their own PC products, and Intel had tried expanding in the past, but their efforts were futile and the costs were too large. As consumer preferences and competitors expanded, it appears that Wintel was just willing to keep up.

    3. Microsoft has still seen success since the Wintel breakup, specifically with their efforts regarding computer chips alongside Google. Having a strong technological base to work off of, Microsoft in a way is going against Intel in seeking alternatives to the chip market. In doing so, Microsoft hopes to lower the cost of chips in a market that faces very little competition. Microsoft is also looking into cloud computing, again against Google, but it appears Google’s backlog of technology and resources leave them better suited for the future in this area.

    Intel, in contrary to Microsoft, appears to be struggling slightly since the Wintel break. As mentioned, Intel’s organization has a strong base in CPU chips, but now Microsoft and Google have entered the market and are seeking to make the technology both more available and affordable. In the age of smartphones, Intel also looked to integrate their technology within the 5G phones, but have since stepped aside from the project and allowed Qualcomm to enter the space. While Intel has stepped aside, there is a chance the company sells some of the 5G technology to Qualcomm to at least make some profit off the venture.

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  10. 1. It is important to state that the word “hacker” has been misused by the media to give it a negative connotation. Nowadays, a hacker is seen as someone who destroys data or steals copyrighted information and software amongst other illegal actions. The original hackers did not have bad intentions. The term “hacker” was a term to praise people who had shown mastery in different details of computers; software and hardware. Hackers believe in being able to freely use their talents. In comparison, the goal of attaining specific freedoms for software users to study and modify the software as well as openly share copies of software. Open-source software is cost-effective and often free to use. Both hackers and open-source software culture believe in constant improvement and evolvement of their current software being used. Open-source software has had an impact in the real world because people now have a choice. Some people are now opting for free open-source programs instead of paying for programs that accomplish the same tasks.
    2. Based on the group’s presentation, innovation in technology led to Wintel falling behind to their competitors. Microsoft and Intel are successful independently but together, their goals didn’t always align. With the rise of mobile technology, Wintel fell behind. Companies like Apple have surpassed Wintel because they have invested in innovation and design. Even though Microsoft has done a good job with their Windows 8 for tablets and Windows Phone software, it could be too late to catch up with their competitors.
    3. As stated in the presentation, Microsoft and Intel had to deal with different competitors after their split. Microsoft had to deal with Google when it comes to its cloud computing services. Intel, after initially entering the 5G smartphone market, eventually left that market to invest in other devices. Intel continues to have a very loyal following in relation to chips including the ARM-based chips.

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    1. 1. Hacker ethics are based on the openness and sharing while incorporating the spirit of capitalism. One key aspect of hack culture is showing that tasks can be done, even if others do not think it is possible. Being creative is essential. The main common point between open-source software and hacker subculture is the ability to find new ways to solve problems in communities and industries. Some corporations will even hire hackers to test their firewalls and security to ensure they can prevent or stop harmful hackers. Open-source software is collaborative and modifiable.

      I do believe that open-source software has an impact in the real world, and it has changed the way we work today. There are low barriers of entry and can provide organizations the freedom to evaluate, compare, and explore potential solutions to real world scenarios. Better quality occurs as developers can benefit from collective skills and experiences. The collaboration among developers allows for a better use of open-source software that can be used in the real world across multiple organizations.

      Reference: What is open source?, Open Source Changed the World

      2. WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry fell apart due to it faltering in the mobile era. The relationship between Microsoft and Intel also began to be strained. Microsoft is trying to gain independence from the PC and that means reducing its relationship with Intel, not ending it. The main driver in the growing distance between the two companies is data center business. Microsoft is actively trying to find new partners for the chip technology. Some of these partners are direct competitors of Intel. These new alliances ultimately will lead to a shift in the overall market.

      Reference: The End of Wintel: How the Most Powerful Alliance In Tech History is Falling Apart

      3. As the industry shifts from PC to more mobile technologies such as tablets, Microsoft and Intel have both tried launching their own tablets. Unfortunately, both companies failed. Intel tried to build processors that can be used in these mobile devices. Intel launched the Atom but it did not take off even when the use and purchasing of tablets were at their highest. Microsoft’s and Intel’s downfalls ultimately have been their inability to profitably invest in low-end offerings. One recovery strategy that shows potential of success is Intel shifting its resources to manufacturing and agreeing to produce parts for others. This should help reduce companies depending on outsourcing with unreliable partners.

      Reference: Intel’s Path to Recovery: Impressive Progress and New Risks, The Fall of Wintel and Rise of Armdroid

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    2. Hey Samuel,

      I thoroughly enjoyed your post. However, I disagree with you that hackers shouldn’t be associated with bad actors. Yes, the original definition of a hacker was someone who was focused on exploring software, but today most hackers are associated with acts of cyber terrorism for criminal profit. If anything they should be less associated with the open source movement today due to their recent controversial acts like the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack in 2021. They just provide more bad publicity to the movement because of their unethical actions in trying to profit off of external attacks on critical government infrastructure. Meanwhile, the open source movement is more about ensuring software is free and accessible to all. Open source software shouldn’t represent what hackers are, rather it should represent ethical, free software for everyone and not a criminal enterprise.

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  11. 1. Hacker ethics are based on the openness and sharing while incorporating the spirit of capitalism. One key aspect of hack culture is showing that tasks can be done, even if others do not think it is possible. Being creative is essential. The main common point between open-source software and hacker subculture is the ability to find new ways to solve problems in communities and industries. Some corporations will even hire hackers to test their firewalls and security to ensure they can prevent or stop harmful hackers. Open-source software is collaborative and modifiable.

    I do believe that open-source software has an impact in the real world, and it has changed the way we work today. There are low barriers of entry and can provide organizations the freedom to evaluate, compare, and explore potential solutions to real world scenarios. Better quality occurs as developers can benefit from collective skills and experiences. The collaboration among developers allows for a better use of open-source software that can be used in the real world across multiple organizations.

    Reference: What is open source?, Open Source Changed the World

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  12. 2. WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry fell apart due to it faltering in the mobile era. The relationship between Microsoft and Intel also began to be strained. Microsoft is trying to gain independence from the PC and that means reducing its relationship with Intel, not ending it. The main driver in the growing distance between the two companies is data center business. Microsoft is actively trying to find new partners for the chip technology. Some of these partners are direct competitors of Intel. These new alliances ultimately will lead to a shift in the overall market.

    Reference: The End of Wintel: How the Most Powerful Alliance In Tech History is Falling Apart

    3. As the industry shifts from PC to more mobile technologies such as tablets, Microsoft and Intel have both tried launching their own tablets. Unfortunately, both companies failed. Intel tried to build processors that can be used in these mobile devices. Intel launched the Atom but it did not take off even when the use and purchasing of tablets were at their highest. Microsoft’s and Intel’s downfalls ultimately have been their inability to profitably invest in low-end offerings. One recovery strategy that shows potential of success is Intel shifting its resources to manufacturing and agreeing to produce parts for others. This should help reduce companies depending on outsourcing with unreliable partners.

    Reference: Intel’s Path to Recovery: Impressive Progress and New Risks, The Fall of Wintel and Rise of Armdroid

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    1. Hey Natalie – great summary of the articles and discussion for this week. If intel shifts their focus to be more of a hardware provider to manufacture parts that could be a winning strategy for them if they can do it efficiently. Like anything else the hardware providers need to keep their costs low if they want their parts put in the apple and google devices. This will help to increase the cell phone or tablet sellers profit margins while also keeping their cost low. I think intel can achieve this given their size as a corporation they can build scalable processes that will keep cost low. They have the capital, resources, relationships, and brand ability to make it happen

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    2. Hi Natalie!

      I found some additional information regarding Intel’s path to recovery that I thought you might find interesting!

      Intel has run into some issues when it comes to its 7-nanometer manufacturing process; however, it is still lagging behind competitors including TSMC. Some analysts have recommended that Intel should outsource manufacturing its own chips to save the company. Others’ have suggested that Intel might partner with TSMC. Pat Gelsinger, the new CEO of Intel, has developed a 3 pronged strategy called IDM (integrated designing and manufacturing) 2.0 in order to bring the company back on its feel. Gelsinger plans on rapidly upgrading the technology that goes into Intel’s manufacturing as well as launching a new program called Intel Foundry Services (IFS) in which other companies would pay Intel to make their chips. Additionally, Intel is relying on TSMC for about one-fourth of Intel’s chipmaking as of right now to maintain a competitive edge. I think it’s quite an ambitious plan to implement IFS, especially since other chipmakers (especially TSMC) have better and more competitive chip-making processes.

      Sources:

      https://www.wsj.com/articles/intels-recovery-will-demand-more-than-just-engineering-skills-11610971201
      https://www.cnet.com/tech/computing/features/intels-chip-recovery-plan-could-restore-us-manufacturing-prowess/

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    3. Hi Natalie,

      Great post! I appreciated your take on the whole hackers and open source software connection. My main gripe with hackers is the fact that they are responsible for a lot of criminal activity. Open source software may be accessible and available to all without any price or restriction on it, however, the fact that hackers are associated with such criminal activity makes it hard for me to trust them with such software. They can easily manipulate software to cause viruses and cause panic in a lot of industries. In order for the open source software movement to reform, we need to impose more restrictions on hackers for such cyber terrorism acts. In the end, I just don’t think hackers should be properly associated with the open source movement. Yes, they have done a lot for making sure a lot of open source software is available to people, however, they can easily manipulate that power for immoral purposes. To me, it’s just not worth the risk to associate such bad actors with this liberal movement of open source software.

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  13. Hackers and open source are synonymous with one another – and I think the one major point I’d like to highlight that often goes overlooked is that not all hackers are bad! In the cybersecurity space there are a multitude of “ethical hackers” that seek out vulnerabilities & bugs within systems and source code and don’t use that information to extort a business. Instead they often report those finding back to the business to close the gap. Companies encourage this type of behavior though “bug bounty” programs where they make bounty payments to the hackers who report them and depending on the size of the bug reported could have a significant payout. Apple recently paid $100K to a hacker who reported a bug in the Mac camera. See link below for more information on that story. Hackers usually fall into three categories, black hats are the people that typically violate computer security for their own personal profit or out of malice. White hats are ethical hackers and can be employed by an enterprise since they can be a countermeasure to find the bugs to protect the enterprise network environment. There are also grey hats which is an expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards, but usually does not have the malicious intent typical of a black hat hacker. Bottomline hackers make open source stronger regardless of where they fall on the ethical hacking spectrum.

    https://9to5mac.com/2022/01/26/apple-paid-bug-bounty-of-100k-for-mac-camera-hijack/

    Microsoft and Intel dominated the computer market with Windows and Intel’s chips in the heyday of the PC. But with technology evolving so much of the past decade to generally move away from the traditional personal computer and in some cases the laptop as well. Their partnership weakened overtime in the “mobile era” – This relationship generally always had a microscope on it endangered by the FTC due to antitrust laws and the monopolistic nature of the partnership made it extremely difficult for others to penetrate the market. Until Apple came along and dominated the tablet market, this was really the only major competition. The very nature of how these companies operated together also made it extremely difficult for either to expand into other technological fields to remain relevant and innovate new products. For example, both have attempted to expand into the tablet market and have failed in doing so. The cost for microsoft and intel products is also typically higher for companies than what Armdroid offers and as a result android OS devices can be sold at a more cost effective price to the consumer. This is so important given how often we are replacing devices these days due to newer tech being developed and rolled out.
    Microsoft has done well in expanding into the cloud computing industry focusing on cross-platform cloud capabilities with their enterprise services. Microsoft is also utilizing Azure, an open source system for managing containerized applications across multiple hosts. There has been a major growing need for this type of technology service in large corporations adopting a more “cloud first” strategy and divesting physical on-premise options that require data centers. In some cases this is not an option such as any contract work with public sector involvement. Microsoft leads the cloud computing market with Azure and has expanded into Mexico and Spain having the largest footprint of data center regions.

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  14. 1.The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals evolved from Open Source and Free Software during 1960’s according to Eric S Raymond. They enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes. The three identifiable and consistent subcultural values of Hackers are technology, secrecy, and mastery. The hacker mindset is not confined to the realm of software (or hardware). The hacker nature is independent of the particular medium the hacker works in.

    The common goal of hackers and open-source software movement would be writing great software with a common code and it should be available for free to everyone.

    Yes, the Open-source software management made dramatic significance in the real world in the following ways.
    Open-source software has spread far beyond Linux and is gaining enormous momentum.
    One of the greatest benefits of open source is that it has created a model where smart people who disagree with each other can collaborate with each other. It’s easy to collaborate if we agree, but open source enables collaboration even when people disagree,” Mickos said. “That is the true beauty of this model.”
    Open source is known for being more secure than proprietary technology,
    It’s more secure than closed source because you are developing it in the open. Because your code is subject to the scrutiny of everybody,
    I believe that Transparency, openness and collaboration will never go out of fashion. It’s also true that every now and then, evolution will go backwards; it will be less open, less collaborative. But open source is an unstoppable force. It will come back and break those models and bring back collaboration, openness and sharing.”
    A closed source software company will generally be able to charge more per unit than an open-source company, it makes up the total market size by leveraging the elasticity in the market. When something is cheaper, more people buy it. That’s why open-source companies have such massive and rapid adoption when they achieve product-market fit.
    Great advantage of open-source companies is their far more efficient and viral go-to-market motion.
    Despite the proliferation of open-source license forms, only three business models are important from an industry and an individual vendor success point of view: the software revenue model, the public collective model, and the service broker model
    Future impact of open source in the software life cycle, the emerging business models for open-source software markets, and the potential for market disruption.

    2. Wintel monopoly already has less than a majority of the tech market because of smartphones and tablets, and by 2016 Microsoft has only have 33% market share and these results shows that wintel monopoly is coming to an end. Microsoft recognized that standardization was more important than innovation. But the companies and individuals wanted technology and file formats that worked together easily. Elegant design and ease of use were of secondary importance. that’s why Microsoft -Windows and Office thrived. And so did and Intel which produced most of the chips that powered PCs.

    With the rise of mobile technology, innovation and design that’s where Apple shines, and where Microsoft falls short. Although Microsoft has done some excellent work designing Windows Phone software and Windows 8 for tablets, it’s simply too little, too late. If Microsoft wants to become a leader again, it needs a leader with vision and a feel for product design. As Apple has shown in recent years, in a fast-changing tech world, innovative design.
    Intel’s share of microprocessors will fall to 29 percent, down from 41 percent. At the same time, the total size of the market will double almost entirely due to the strong growth of the smartphone and media tablet segments.

    3. Microsoft spent an unlimited amount of money to recover the strategy and prop up the struggling Windows Phone smartphone operating system, and why it designed Windows 8 for tablets rather than PCs. but it was too late. Microsoft which initially was tied up with intel chips produced successful business growth in the past decades now left intel and trying to look for other partnership in order to overcome with the standards of the latest mobile technology and ease of use design. Whereas Intel is trying to build its own products of tablets but still could not recover the demands of ARMOID, Apple and android technology smart phones and tablet. Google has seen a tremendous increase in their shares of revenue after the invention of cloud computing technology.

    https://haenfler.sites.grinnell.edu/subcultures-and-scenes/hacker-subculture/

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_culture

    https://techcrunch.com/2019/01/12/how-open-source-software-took-over-the-world/

    https://channeldailynews.com/news/the-real-impact-of-open-source/6065

    https://www.linuxfoundation.org/blog/marten-mickos-on-how-open-source-has-changed-our-world/

    https://www.computerworld.com/article/2472929/good-bye-wintel-monopoly–it-s-been-nice-to-know-you.html

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  15. 1. A common thread between hacker subculture and open source movement is the general attitude of using their technology skills to break limitations of software and learn something new. The open source software movement demonstrates this same feeling. People can share and adapt open source code and knowledge to fit their own needs or solve an issue together and ultimately create something new. The idea that all information should be free is engrained in both hacker subculture as well as the open source movement. Overall, I believe that the open source movement has had an extremely significant impact on the real world. Open source platforms such as GitHub have allowed people across the world to share own unique codes with various real life applications. Android OS is also part of the open source software movement and has allowed people from all different socioeconomic backgrounds to be able to afford access to smartphones for as low as $50. The open source movement has ultimately allowed people to build on each others’ works and resulted in numerous innovations.

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    1. 2. The WINTEL monopoly fell apart because larger tech companies like Apple and Google expanded and created competition for them. Additionally, anti0trust laws that were enacted by the FTC threatened the WINTEL relationship. When tablets became popular, both Microsoft and Intel tried to create their own tablets but failed. On top of this, Armdroid was able to provide tablet manufacturers the resources they needed at a lower cost than WINTEL.

      3.Microsoft’s recovering strategies included strongly investing in cloud development and branching out to other partners such as Qualcomm and Naples for other kinds of chips to decrease the cost of their data centers. Intel’s recovery strategies included selling server chips to Google. Intel tried to invest in 5G technology but ultimately was unsuccessful. However, there is a possibility that Intel could sell its research on 5G to Qualcomm in the future.

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  16. 1.Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. A hacker is a person skilled in information technology who uses their technical knowledge to achieve a goal or overcome an obstacle, within a computerized system by non-standard means. Just like every coin has 2 sides, Hackers were also distinguished as Good i.e.; Ethical Hackers and Non-Ethical Hackers.
    Open source is a licensing agreement that allows users to freely modify a work, use said work in new ways, integrate the work into a larger project, or derive a new work based on the original. By removing barriers between innovators, open-source promotes a free exchange of ideas within a community to drive creative, scientific, and technological advancement. The fundamental functions of the Internet are built on open source technologies.
    An Ethical Hacker will use the free sources taking full-fledged precautions. More often, Companies will hire Ethical Hackers for penetration testing for the systems. Development teams can be made aware of the vulnerabilities through ethical hacking. In most cases, Hackers would opt for using open source software for two main reasons. I.e.; free use without any patent rights and can also modify the encryption top of original encryption and will theft the personal and business data of companies.
    The advocates of open-source and closed-source development models argue whether the open-source operating system Linux is more secure than Windows or whether Mozilla’s open-source Firefox browser is more secure than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. Supporters of open-source argue that the accessibility of the code allows the good guys to find bugs faster, while critics argue that more attackers than defenders are poking through the code, so the net effect is worse security.
    Ref: https://www.technologyreview.com/2010/06/07/262916/open-source-could-mean-an-open-door-for-hackers/amp/

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    1. 2. Wintel, the alliance between Microsoft and Intel grew so powerful that, at one point, there were fears that it might abuse its position, and both the U.S. and the EU felt it was necessary to take legal action to control its dominance.
      With respect to the Wintel monopoly over the digital and networking industry falling apart, I liked Anthony’s take on it. With the new era of mobile technology with 4G and 5G, people’s anticipations are reaching to next level. Kids of the present generation are much smarter and more immersed in technology when compared with 90’s kids. Whether it’s next-generation mobile phones or gaming, advanced technology needed faster processors, high-resolution cameras, and highly responsive touch screens.
      The monopoly ended with the new revolutions of cloud, chrome, and other inventions. Companies like Qualcomm came into the picture with their take on 5G technology and by the introduction of touch screens and Arm chips. The likes of Apple, Google, and Samsung successfully broke the monopoly in the market as the consumers liked their technology innovations and new-age services.

      3. For decades, two firms collaborated to lay the groundwork for personal computing. Microsoft created the Windows operating system and Intel created the CPUs. But Wintel is no longer in business. Yes, Windows will continue to run on Intel processors. However, Wintel as a powerful alliance has died. For years, it has been fading.
      Because it has matured technology that can handle all of the server software firms like Google, Intel owns 99 percent of the industry. In the chip market, Intel remains the leading player. Competing with Intel will necessitate years of effort and a significant investment in infrastructure for chipmakers.
      While Microsoft could gain its lost ground with Cloud computing and other services, Intel appears to have a long way to go.

      Here are some strategies that Intel and Microsoft are pursuing, post Wintel:
      Mobileye: It is an Intel affiliate in Israel, produces self-driving cars and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS).

      12th Gen Intel Core series: Alder Lake is Intel’s codename for the 12th generation of Intel Core processors, which are built on a hybrid architecture that combines high-performance Golden Cove cores with power-efficient Gracemont cores.

      (Intel Arc graphics)- the market with discrete graphics Arc from Intel an Intel brand of graphics processing units. These are discrete GPUs that are primarily targeted towards the high-margin PC gaming sector. Intel’s consumer graphics software and services are also covered by the trademark.
      The first version, codenamed “Alchemist,” will be accessible in the first quarter of 2022. Three additional generations are in the works after Alchemist

      Microsoft is entering into the below areas:

      1. Data centers- Microsoft’s data centers continue to run Windows. While other firms have long worked to get Linux working on ARM server chips, Microsoft’s move would be the first time Windows has done so. Because of the increased use of cloud computing, the top three public cloud service providers – Amazon, Microsoft, and Google – have all witnessed again in income.

      2. Cloud infrastructure
      Microsoft Azure, the company’s cloud computing service, has expanded to Mexico and Spain. This expansion propelled Microsoft to the top of the list of companies with the most data center regions.

      Sources:
      1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobileye
      2. https://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/newsroom/resources/press-kit-12th-gen-core-processors.html
      3. https://gadgets.ndtv.com/laptops/news/intel-arc-discrete-gpu-xe-graphics-architecture-launch-price-date-
      2689887
      4. https://www.tomshardware.com/news/purported-intel-arc-alchemist-desktop-graphics-card-pictured
      5. https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/news/microsoft-opens-two-new-data-centers-in-wyoming/

      6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Arc

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  17. Hacker subculture is one of the spaces from which the open source movement evolved. What is common between the two and do you believe that the open source software movement has significant impact in the real world?

    For me, I believe hacker culture provides both a large benefit and large disadvantage to the open source movement. For one, hackers have been commonly associated with cyber attacks on critical infrastructure in the real world. One example would be the ransomware attack of the Colonial Pipeline in 2021. Hackers who were associated with this disaster helped bring U.S. fuel distribution to a screeching halt. Obviously, there’s a negative connotation when one is associated with such bad actors. The open source movement prides itself on having software easily accessible by all and the ability for one to modify the software to their unique specifications. Hackers believe a similar principle in the fact that they want to adjust and modify existing computer programs and software to suit their own needs. In this way, the open source movement is very much tied to these hackers and their activities. However,the issue with hackers is the fact that they can choose to effect the world in one of two ways. One they can be positive and provide more advantages to computer programming by helping improve antivirus software by running malware and ransomware tests externally or being unethical and hacking critical government infrastructure for criminal profit. All infall, the impact hackers have on the open source movement is mixed to me. On one hand they believe in the similar principle of being able to modify a program in a way similar to free speech, however, on the other hand they also can take their beliefs too far and act in their own interest. For me, I personally doubt the hackers’s intentions to be good actors in terms of the open source movement. Yes, some have made a good impact in terms of their own independent work helping to modify software for the benefit of modern consumers, however, others have been seen as notoriously bad actors for their roles in various criminal schemes. In the end, I believe that hackers do have a link to the open source movement as both wish to modify existing software and other programs to fit their specifications and not for corporate profit, however, the issue with these shared similarities is the fact that these beliefs have had a negative impact on the movement considering the rampant cyberterrorism that has been committed by these groups in the last few decades.

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  18. For most people the word hacker brings forth a bad concept of a person who does illegal things on the internet nevertheless, the origins of hackers is a totally different story. Hackers in the programming world were seen as an astonishing individual that could make a computer do whatever they pleased. One of the main goals of hackers since the beginning of their endeavors was to write great code and software that is available for free for everyone to use which is the same goal open source has- free software that everyone can use. Consequently, open source definitely has a significant impact in the real world as it allows individuals to collaborate and write better code. Open source has not only brought a great amount of innovation but it also allows individuals to participate in the process of understanding the code and modifying it for their convenience which allows for breakthrough in the digital world.
    Over the past decades Microsoft and INTEL have dominated the digital and networking industry nevertheless, in recent years this monopoly has fallen apart due to many reasons. One of them being their disfavored smartphones and tablets in the market. With the rise in popularity of Apple’s Iphone and Ipad and Android smartphones and tablets in the market, WINTEL has suffered detrimental losses in the market which have contributed to its decline in recent years. Even though they had efforts to catch up to the new technologies their efforts were not enough for a fast paced and evolving market.
    After the eminent divorce of Microsoft and Intel both companies chose different recovery strategies. In Microsoft’s case, they opted to engage in new partnerships for different products with the aim to position themselves better in the market nevertheless their efforts have not been as fruitful. Intel decided to venture into new horizons; however the outcome has not been the best just yet.

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  19. After reading the information provided it is evident that there are common similarities between hacker subculture and open source software. While the word hacker usually gets a bad rap because of what people associate with it, it is actually quite different when it started off . Hackers use it to challenge their abilities and keep past software restrictions. They would try and improve what was already written. The open source software movement has the same concept. Anyone has access to certain softwares and codes without any financial or technical restrictions. From this equal access, software can be improved later on as technology continues to grow and expand.

    Overall the Wintel monopoly fell apart due to Microsoft and Intel not keeping up with the competition and new technology forming. Large name tech companies started to take shape and create new industries. Both companies basically did not see eye to eye on certain products they wanted to develop. An example of this is tablets that Intel wanted to create that Microsoft did not want to take away from their Computers. Since both companies could not come together to create new products it is what made the WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry fall apart.

    Since parting ways Microsoft and Intel have adopted very different recovery strategies. Both companies in my opinion have been very successful since separating. Being in the tech industry now more than ever is very hard. So many new technology companies are up and coming. Having to adjust and keep up with the demand of what consumers want can be hard. Along with this keeping an eye on competitors can be difficult. There is a balance that must be maintained, that I believe that both companies are doing very well at. This is how I feel Microsoft and Intel have done since parting ways on their recovery strategies.

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