Group 2: Dhara Gada, Brianna Monroe, Collin Zeffer, David Budzinski, Jared Logan, Arman Ameri, Suguna Srilasya Banigandlapati
BACKGROUND: Hackers and Open Source
- Hacker culture involves a group of people who enjoy the challenge of overcoming software systems and their limitations in a creative way, in order to achieve clever and interesting outcomes.
- This term does not represent hackers negatively. It actually covers how the hacking activities are performed, and if it is perceived as exciting and important. These activities were said to have “hack value”, which is how the word “hack” began.
- The history of the hacker culture began in the 1960s within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)’s Tech Model Railroad Club and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The initial challenge was to enter restricted programs or areas in a new, clever way that would not create major damage or problems.
- The main goal of those in hacker culture is to enjoy “exploring the details of programmable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary,” (Raymond, Eric, ed. (2003-12-29). “hacker”. Jargon File (version 4.4.7 ed.). Retrieved 2008-03-02.)
And then END OF WINTEL?…..THE MONOPOLY BEGINS TO BREAK UP… 2010 to 2017
- Wintel stands for the relationship between Microsoft and Intel, in which most personal computers run on the Windows OS and the intel processor chip.
- The Wintel relationship is being threatened by other big tech companies such as Apple and Google expanding into different technological fields. This also creates new alliances in which Wintel must face.
- Along with competing companies, the Wintel relationship is also being endangered by the FTC due to antitrust laws.
- The Wintel relationship must come to an end for each company to expand into other technological fields before it is too late.
The Fall of Wintel and the Rise of Armdroid
- Tablets are starting to lead to the extinction of PC’s
- Both Microsoft and Intel have attempted making their own tablets however they failed.
- Intel’s development of Atom has also been a failure.
- With Windows 7 out it wouldn’t be economical for Microsoft to develop another OS which could lead to cannibalization of its products.
- Both ARM and Android — Armdroid — are providing everything that tablet manufacturers need and doing it more effectively and at a lower cost than Microsoft and Intel can.
In summary, the Wintel era is starting to come to an end with a new reign beginning with Armdroid. And with antitrust laws there is going to be a lot more different companies offering the same tech services much like the telephone companies. Like when Bell Atlantic broke up into Verizon, T-Mobile, AT&T, etc. This seems like a necessary step forward for tech companies as technology is a field which grows at an exponential rate in which tech companies must not only keep up to survive in but also keep innovating.
- The problem for both Microsoft and Intel was the market changed at a pace that both the companies were struggling to match
- Microsoft could neither show the revenues nor the margins when compared to competitors such as Apple (taking into account Apple’s cut from third party AppStore sales).
- Later on Microsoft and Intel’s influence is significantly diminished because technology advancements from other market players. Pressure was building on the Wintel twins. The answers so far has hardly been inspiring, seemingly limited to ‘cheaper than Apple’ but with little or no real innovation’
- The conventional way of thinking about the electronics market is to say that Microsoft Windows and Intel x86 processors dominate the desktop and laptop market but haven’t done well in the growing mobile devices market.
- The game here is to say that the Galaxy Tab and the i-phone should all be looked at as computing devices, and we should see that the explosion of Android and IOS devices (typically powered by ARM chips) is leading to a catastrophic erosion of the Wintel market share.
For users who use all these devices, the need is – some phone-tablet substitutability and also some tablet-laptop substitutability but very little phone-laptop substitutability. That makes it hard to know how to characterize the scope of the market.
- Microsoft and Intel had been partnering since decades and they ruled the world of PC era by their so-called duopoly.
- This partnership weakened in the mobile era.
- Microsoft is engaging new partners like Qualcomm and Cavium for server chips for Project Olympus by evaluating ARM- based chips.
- Microsoft is also looking for partners in intel’s ownx86 market. It partnershiped with AMD (key rival of intel) for its new server chip, Naples
- All these new ventures are Microsoft’s integral component of plan to bring down the cost of their data centers.
- Intel also was trying to be free from Microsoft and overall PC market and Microsoft started the initiative to search for alternative architecture.
- Microsoft announced that it will use ARM chips in the data centers that run Azure.
- In Mobile era, citizens of the world are spending so much on iphone and android, windows hardly exists.
- Most mobile devices use ARM chips and Intel is not dominant in this but for other online services intel chips run 99% of worlds computer server.
- Google bought more server chips from intel, however it does not sell server but builds server for itself.
- Google and Microsoft just announced for using other chips to leverage against intel by adding competition to the market. The other chipmakers need to build solid foundational software for chips to operate in practical world and this will take them years to come at part with intel and compete.
- This is not about technology but about economics’ and trying to bring down the prices of chip.
- No real market competition exists to keep prices down.
Microsoft and Google are trying to bring new players in chip market by exploring different architectures and trying to bring the cost down. Intel in dominant player in the chip market and competing intel will take years of effort and lot of infrastructure for chipmakers. Definitely, there needs to be new players in market to overrule intel’s monopoly.
“Intel’s Exit Leaves Qualcomm in Full Control of the 5G Smartphone Modem Roadmap”
- In the battle for high level 5G technology for smartphones, Intel abandons research and leaves it to Qualcomm, which would be the only supplier of 5G technology.
- Apple and Qualcomm have a contract where Apple uses Qualcomm chips in their smartphones. Intel will continue to invest resources into 5G technology for other devices but struggled to create a modem that would meet users demands in phones.
- This opens the door for Qualcomm technology to be used in U.S. smartphones exclusively. Intel could still potentially sell 5G intellectual property to Qualcomm but that is yet to be determined.
Article: How Google is beating Microsoft in the cross-platform cloud
- Amazon and Microsoft have been number one and two in the cloud computing industry. Google is entering the competition with their new technology “Anthos” focusing on cross-platform cloud capabilities, like how Microsoft uses their cloud computing with their enterprise services.
- Anthos is an open source cloud solution that would allow their customers to work across other cloud platforms, targeting customers who are frustrated with working across multiple cloud platforms.
- Anthos can run on Google’s Cloud Platform and in customers’ data centers by using Google Kubernetes Engine. Additionally, no new hardware is required to run the solution since it is software-based.
- Kubernetes is an open source system for managing containerized applications across multiple hosts. (https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes)
- Although Microsoft is also utilizing its own Azure Kubernetes service, Google is still seeking to market Anthos as the leading open source enterprise cloud solution.
Google is seeking to enter the cloud computing competition with their new technology named “Anthos.” The approach is like Microsoft, where its competitive advantage comes from its cross-platform cloud opportunities. Google is targeting specifically people who are frustrated with having to work across multiple cloud platforms, given that Anthos allows users to work across these different cloud platforms.
Top Public Cloud Providers Grow Revenue Amidst COVID-19 Crisis
- The top three public cloud service providers – Amazon, Microsoft, and Google – have all seen an increase in their revenues due to the greater use of cloud computing. This is attributable to more people working from home from the COVID-19 Pandemic.
- Microsoft Azure, Microsoft’s cloud computing, has expanded to Mexico and Spain. This expansion set Microsoft to the top as having the most data center regions.
- Google is also expanding to four more regions. Additionally, Google plans to release its new service, called Cloud Memorystore, which is a in-memory data store service.
- Amazon is expanding as well, keeping up with its other cloud service competitors. AWS will soon make its Amazon Keyspaces cloud database service available to the general public.
Overall Summary of the Articles
In conclusion, hacker culture is something that allows individuals to showcase their technology skills by overcoming challenges and learning something new. It allows people to test themselves by breaking through the limitations of general programs or software’s. Many of the values of the free open-source software originally began with the hacker culture at MIT, which creates a set of principles and attitudes followed by those in this subculture. These can include feeling that computer access can teach you anything, all information should be free, hackers should be judged by their skills, and that computers can create art, beauty, and change lives forever.
This connects directly to open source, which is not simple access to the source codes. Open-source software must not restrict the software from being distributed, must include source code, and not discriminate, as a few examples. Open source has been acknowledged for its continual rise dating back to 2013, when partners in the technology world stated that open source is “eating the software world.” Open source is solving issues of lower costs and big data, which has proven to be quite beneficial.
We saw an issue with Microsoft and Intel, which was that they could not find ways to invest in low-end offerings, specifically tablets, in a profitable manner. The age of tablets was strong in 2011, which is when people began to feel PCs might be overthrown. Developing operating systems for tablets would cost Microsoft a lot, especially when other companies began to do it at a lower cost. Microsoft tried to combat this by resurging with a strong business in cloud development, and even showing signs of leaving Intel behind if they could. Intel’s chips have been the only practical option for data centers, until this in 2017. Microsoft began to branch out to other chips that could power their services more efficiently. Microsoft and Intel had been trying to split for a long time, and now that Microsoft attempted to gain independence from the PC, it seemed to be finally possible.
- Hacker subculture is one of the spaces from which the open source movement evolved. What is common between the two and do you believe that the open source software movement has significant impact in the real world?
- How did the WINTEL monopoly over the digital and networking industry fall apart?
- Having lost their preeminent positions and parting ways Microsoft and Intel Have adopted very different recovery strategies. What are these strategies and how successful/unsuccessful has each been?